Old, Good Database Design

Why Should I Care?

Applications, even databases come and go, but data is the most important part of the story. Usually, data is the purpose of the system exists in the first place. That’s why we should consider a database system not only as a black box to hold our data, but also a tool to verify and guard it against corruptions.

This is achieved with a help of robust and well-thought database design. Of course, business logic is coded in the application layer and it makes sure data is in a proper format before arriving at the database. But who guarantees that a network failure or a bug will not allow corrupted “guests”? Also, the application layer is not the only “door” to the database. We can have import scripts, maintenance scripts, and mere mortal DBAs and developers interacting with it. Having preventive measures at a very low level ensures our data is always checked before stored.

Having robust, reliable data also helps with development and testing. Setting a column as a Not Null excludes many test scenarios assuming the emptiness of that column and also simplifies code freeing developers to check value [nearly] every time before accessing it.

Having stressed the importance of good database design, let’s have a look at the tools at our disposal to achieve it.


This is of no doubt the first rule of good design. We are not going to delve into normalization rules here, just want to emphasize it’s importance. A good piece of reading about the topic could be this article.

Data Types

Defining proper types for attributes is another thing that needs attention. This will not only improve the performance of the database but also validate the data before storing it. So we should keep numeric data in “integer”, “numeric” fields. Timestamps in “timestamp”, “timestamptz” fields. Booleans in “bit”, “char(1)” or “boolean” (whichever RDBMS supports) fields, etc.

Dates deserve a specific mention. If a Date attribute is supposed to have only the date part (OrderDate, ReleaseDate) use a type without a time portion (“date”). If you need to keep only the time (StartTime, EndTime) use a suitable time type. If you don’t need precision specify it as zero (“time(0)”). The problem with dates having a time portion is that you always have to cut off the time part to display only the date and make sure not to display yesterday or tomorrow when you format it in a different timezone than your database. Dates with time portion also may cause problems with subtracting and addition when hopping over daylight change dates.


Constraints are our main topic of discussion today. They are what keeps invalid data out and ensures the robustness of it. Let’s look at them one by one.

Not Null Constraint

If business rules state that attribute should always be present, make it Not Null without hesitating. Good candidates to be Not Null are fields like Id, Name, AddedDate, IsActive, State, CategoryId (if all items should have a category), ItemCount, Price, and many others. Usually, these attributes play important roles in business logic. Other optional informative fields may still be Null.

But be careful not overusing Not Null constraint for attributes that CAN BE Null. For example, a long-running Task always has a StartTimestamp (Not Null), but EndTimestamp is updated only when the task finishes (Null). Or another classic example: Employee table has ManagerId, but not all employees have a manager. Don’t be tempted to make ManagerId Not Null and insert “0” or “-1” for employees that don’t have a manager. This will lead to other problems down the way when we will be adding Foreign Key constraints.

Unique Constraint

Again, depending on business rules, some attributes (or combinations of attributes) should be unique, such as Id, PinNumber, BookId and AuthorId, OrderNo, etc. These attributes should be made unique by adding Unique constraints. One more note: you may use Unique Index to achieve the same effect, but adding constraint is a better approach. Because when you add a Unique constraint a non-unique index is created automatically. So if for some reason you would have to temporarily disable/enable the constraint it’d be very easy. In the case of a unique index, you would have to drop/recreate the index which is an expensive operation in terms of performance degradation and time.

Primary Key

Not Null and Unique constraints together make up a Primary Key. Columns like Id or ObjectId quickly come to mind when we think of primary keys. But primary keys can also be composite, like BookId and AuthorId. The dilemma here is whether to have a separate Id column as a primary key, or make a composite primary key of them both? Having a separate Id column is usually a better method as it makes your joins cleaner and also allows easily add another column to a unique combination. However, having a separate primary key (Id) doesn’t free us from the need to add a Unique constraint to BookId and AuthorId columns.

Check Constraint

Check constraints allow us to define valid values/ranges for data. Perfect candidates for check constraints are Percent (between 0 and 100), State (0, 1, 2), Price, Amount, Total (greater than or equal to 0), PinNumber (fixed length), etc. Again don’t try to code business logic into check constraints. I remember a case when adding a Check constraint “greater than or equal to zero” to the AccountBalance column saved us from accidental over-drawing balances.

Default Constraint

Default constraints are also important. They allow us to add new Not Null columns to existing tables and make the “older” API to be compatible with the new structure until all parties are upgraded (though after complete upgrade default constraint should be removed).

One thing to remember here. Don’t code business logic into a Default constraint. For example function “now()” can be a good fit (though not always) as a default value for a Timestamp field in a Log table, but not for an OrderDate field in an Orders table. You may be tempted to omit OrderDate in inserts, relying on a default constraint and this means spreading your business logic down to the database level. Also at some point business may decide to assign OrderDate only after it has been approved and because the Default constraint is buried deep into the database it will not be obvious when we make changes to the code in the application layer.

Foreign Key Constraint

Foreign Key constraints are the keys of relational database design. Together with Primary Keys, Foreign Keys ensure data consistency at the inter-table level. Normalization rules tell us when to extract data into its table and reference it with Foreign keys. Here we will focus on subtle nuances, like OnDelete and OnUpdate rules.

Foreign Key editor dialog in DBeaver

Let’s start with the easy part: OnUpdate. Foreign keys reference primary keys and they are rarely (if ever) changed. So the OnUpdate rule is not very popular, but it makes sense to set it to Cascade, as sometimes we may have to update the primary keys of some rows (usually after migration). This way database will allow us to make the update and new ids will be propagated to the child tables.

OnDelete rule is a bit more complicated. Depending on the database we have options NoAction, Restrict, SetNull, SetDefault, and Cascade. So which one to choose?

NoAction is usually selected for keys referencing lookups or entities that can exist without referencing entity. For example, Products -> Categories, Books -> Authors, etc. Restrict in most cases is the same as NoAction, though for some databases there’re subtle differences.

On the other hand, Cascade is selected when child records can not exist without their parent. In Book and Author example, when a book is removed we should remove records from the BookAuthor table too. Other examples: OrderDetails -> Orders, PostComments -> Posts etc. Here some of you may disagree that the database should not automatically remove child rows, they should be removed by the application layer. Depending on business logic, yes, that’s true. But sometimes “unimportant” child deletions can be delegated to the database.

SetNull is rarely used. For example, the Foreign key between Employee.ManagerId and Employee.Id can be Set Null. When a manager is removed (if ever) his subordinates become orphans. Obviously, this rule should be selected only if the column is nullable.

SetDefault is the rarest among his counterparts. It sets the column to its default value when the parent record is removed. Because foreign keys reference primary keys we can hardly imagine a hard-coded default value for a field with a foreign key. But anyway this option exists in case we need it.


Indexes are an important part of good database design, but a bit off-topic for our discussion, as they do little to protect our data (except for unique indexes).


A well-thought design can save us many hours of coding, testing, and troubleshooting. Writing queries and reports against a well-designed database is a pleasure. Publishing and migrating that data to a new system is also very easy.

Opinions presented in this article are the result of many years dealing with various database systems. Some may be suitable for your case and some even contrary. So don’t take them for granted.

Happy coding!

This article is published by Elnur, founder of Relinx – free and simple CMDB and IT Asset Manager

EDIT: The post got lots of views and feedback. Big thanks to everybody. Some readers even translated it to their native language:
Japanese: https://itnews.org/news_contents/old-good-database-design
Chinese: https://www.infoq.cn/article/j5BvzoqLY7cuxb7uMBWP

Published by Elnur

Founder of https://relinx.io

17 thoughts on “Old, Good Database Design

  1. Hi ,I am an editor of InfoQ China which focuses on software development. We like this article and plan to translate it,for informational purposes only.Before that,I want to ask your permission first. We will retain the English title and link. Is that OK? Thanks.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Hi, thanks for your interest in my blog post. Of course, as long as you retain the link to the original post and ad to the Relinx app I will only appreciate it.


  2. Yes, this is what annoys me the last couple.of years.
    I’ve learned to design the database first and normalise it and then start programming
    But I think especially the .net with the visual coding is adding db tables at times they think oh, let me save this in a database.

    Liked by 1 person

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